EBV Associated Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Complicated with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant: A Rare Complication with Fatal Outcome
Keywords:EBV (Epstein –Barr virus), PTLD (Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder), HLH (Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis), ATG (Anti thymocyte globulin)
Epstein –Barr virus related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a fatal and life-threatening complication because of immunocompromised state.1 Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a sign of poor outcome in EBV associated PTLD after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is particularly common when in vivo T cell depletion strategies have been applied.2 In both situations, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, infection with EBV is the key mechanism. Here I present a case of 29 years old female with acute myeloid leukaemia after second allogeneic stem cell transplant, who developed PTLD complicated with Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to Epstein – Barr virus (EBV) infection. Patient was treated with chemo immunotherapy and responded but ultimately died after 100 days of transplant. The association of HLH and EBV related PTLD is rare and data on outcome of these patients are limited with very high mortality.
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